Antibiotics are the medical tools used to treat and prevent various kinds of bacterial disorders from mild to severe ones. The use of antibiotics should be carefully considered in each individual case. The unwise use of antibiotics often leads to side effects, development of bacterial resistance to certain kinds of antibiotics and numerous health consequences.
The fact is not all antibiotics work for all kinds of microorganisms which provoke inflammation and disease in a human body. Antibiotics can be divided into groups of narrow spectrum and wide spectrum medicines. From the very name narrow spectrum are administered only for certain types of bacteria and are not effective for all the others.
Broad spectrum agents work against many types of bacteria and are used to treat various bacterial infections. The use of a particular type of antibiotic is based on the condition which a person suffers from, his personal history of allergic reactions to antibiotic agents, tolerability and response to the therapy. Besides, certain groups of patients such as pregnant women or children or people with chronic or acute kidney or liver disorders cannot use antibiotics or should be adjusted the alternative safe types of antibiotic agents.
As narrow spectrum antibiotics are only effective against a limited range of microorganisms, they are used for certain uncommon types of bacterial infections or infections of very serious character. They kill only bacteria which cause the disease. While broad spectrum antibiotics are often self-administered for a great number of infections from common sore throat to infections of the urinary tract. They kill every pathogen they meet on their way.
Certain groups of antibiotics target the infections of certain body organs and systems. For instance, bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract can be treated by different antibiotics.
There is another division of all antibiotics to bactericidal and bacteriostatic.
Bactericidal antibiotics have a direct purpose to kill the bacteria in the human body. This type of antibiotics may injure the membranes of pathogens or destroy the DNA and RNA of bacteria.
Bacteriostatic antibiotics don’t allow bacteria growing in the body. The pathogens don’t die, but they can’t grow or replicate either. Then the immune system starts its work to get rid of these pathogenic bacteria. For instance, some antibiotics prevent the growth of bacteria by interfering in the process of protein formation and thus stop bacteria from developing. Lots of bacteriostatic antibiotics impair the ability of bacteria to replicate by depriving bacteria from important metabolites for making new DNA and RNA.